Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the growth and increases the apoptosis of human thyroid carcinoma cells through suppression of EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.
Cancer Cell Int. 2019 ;19:43. Epub 2019 Feb 28. PMID: 30858760
Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine malignancy and the incidence rate is rapidly increasing worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could suppress cancer growth and induce apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism of action of EGCG on the growth of human thyroid carcinoma cells has not been fully illuminated.
Methods: Cell proliferation and viability were detected by EdU and MTS assays. Cell cycle distribution was measured by flow cytometry. Migration and invasion were evaluated by scratch and transwell assays. Apoptotic levels were detected by TUNEL staining and western blotting. The protein levels of EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway were detected by western blotting. The in vivo results were determined by tumor xenografts in nude mice. The in vivo proliferation, tumor microvessel density, and apoptosis were detected by immunohistochemistry.
Results: EGCG inhibited the proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression in human thyroid carcinoma cells. EGCG decreased the migration and invasion, but increased the apoptosis of human thyroid carcinoma cells. EGCG reduced the protein levels of phospho (p)-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), H-RAS, p-RAF, p-MEK1/2, and p-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in human thyroid carcinoma cells. EGCG inhibited the growth of human thyroid carcinoma xenografts by inducing apoptosis and down-regulating angiogenesis.
Conclusions: EGCG could reduce the growth and increase the apoptosis of human thyroid carcinoma cells through suppressing the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. EGCG can be developed as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of thyroid cancer.