Effects of applying biosolids to soils on the adsorption and bioavailability of 17α-ethinylestradiol and triclosan in wheat plants.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Apr 1. Epub 2017 Apr 1. PMID: 28364207
Biosolids contain inorganic and organic contaminants, including pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) that have accounted for a series of emerging contaminants, such as triclosan (TCS) and the hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). The general aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of biosolid application on EE2 and TCS adsorption and bioavailability in soils through testing with wheat plants. For the bioavailability study, sand and two soils, Lampa and Lo Prado, were used. The sand and soilswere treated using two biosolid application rates (0 and 90 mg ha(-1)), and the EE2 and TCS concentrations in the biosolids were determined as 0.54 ± 0.06 and 8.31 ± 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. The concentration observed in wheat plants indicated that EE2 and TCS are mainly concentratedin the roots rather than in the shoots. Furthermore, the bioavailability of the compounds in plants depends on the properties of the contaminants and the soil. Adsorption studies showed that increasing the soil organic matter content increases the adsorption of TCS and EE2 on these substrates and that both compounds follow the Freundlich adsorption model. The desorption procedure indicated that availability for both TCS and EE2 depended on the soil type because TCS and EE2 were small in the Lampa soil with and without biosolid application and TCS increased by nearly 50% in the Lo Prado soil. The Lo Prado soil had an acidic pH (5.9) and the Lampa soil had a neutral pH of 7.3, and the organic carbon content was smaller.