A comparison study of effects of Echinacea extract and levamisole on phenytoin-induced cleft palate in mice.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(3):163-6. Epub 2006 Aug 4. PMID: 16889880
Basic Sciences Group, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org
There are many reports that the teratogenic effects of phenytoin, especially cleft palate can be decreased by stimulation of maternal immune system. Also, there is some evidence that Echinacea extract and levamisole are immunomodulator drugs. So, in this study, we compared the prophylactic effects of levamisole and Echinacea extract on teratogenic effects of phenytoin. This study was performed on 32 pregnant mice that were divided into four groups. The first group (control group) received normal saline intraperitoneally and the other groups (test groups) received phenytoin (65 mg/kg intraperitoneally) at 10th day of gestation. Levamisole and extract of Echinacea purpurea were administrated at dose of 10 and 360 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively, in along with and 12h later after phenytoin injection, in two groups. Fetuses were carried out in 19th day of gestation and after determination of weight and length; they were stained by Alizarin red-Alcian blue method. Cleft palate incidence was 16, 5.3, and 3.2% in fetuses of mice that received only phenytoin, phenytoin with levamisole, and phenytoin with Echinacea extract, respectively. Mean weight and length of fetuses of animals that received levamisole and Echinacea extract were significantly greater than those received only phenytoin. It is concluded that Echinacea can stimulate immune system more than levamisole and has better prophylactic effect on incidence of phenytoin-induced cleft palate, but it is not significant.