Dual effects of isoflavonoids from Pueraria lobata roots on estrogenic activity and anti-proliferation of MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells.
Bioorg Chem. 2019 Mar ;83:135-144. Epub 2018 Oct 10. PMID: 30352359
Pueraria lobata root (PLR), well known as Kudzu root, has recently become commercially available in Western dietary supplements for menopausal symptoms. The scientific basis for its action has been attributed to the action of phytoestrogens. This study aimed to investigate the estrogen-like activity of isoflavonoids isolated from P. lobata root and their safety with respect to their effect on breast cancer cell proliferation. In an E-screen assay, crude MeOH extract of PLR significantly increased the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the four fractions obtained by solvent fractionation of MeOH extract, the n-BuOH fraction had significant estrogen-like activities at all concentrations tested. Phytochemical analysis of the n-BuOH fraction led to the isolation of 10 isoflavones (1-10), among which genistein (10) had significant estrogen-like activities at all concentrations tested. These activities were significantly enhanced by treatment with genistein and 17β-estradiol compared with 17β-estradiol alone, and this effect was mediated by decreased expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α and phospho-ERα in MCF-7 cells. In a cell cytotoxicity assay, genistein (10) exhibited significant cytotoxicity in both ER-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This cytotoxicity was characterized by the induction of apoptotic cells stained with annexin V conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 and involved activation of mitochondria-independent and -dependent apoptosis pathways in MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrated that genistein (10) has estrogen-like effects dependent on ER pathway activation and anti-proliferative effects mediated by the apoptosis pathway rather than the ER pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.