Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2001 May 15;30(10):1122-9. PMID: 11369502
Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. B.firstname.lastname@example.org
Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants affect these plasma factors in chronic smokers. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 128 male normolipidemic chronic smokers the effect of a 2-year alpha-tocopherol treatment (400 IU dL-alpha-tocopherol daily) on plasma levels of sICAM-1 and autoantibodies against oxLDL was evaluated. In addition, we monitored production of superoxide by leukocytes ex vivo. It was found that compared to nonsmokers (n = 33) plasma levels of IgG but not IgM autoantibodies against oxLDL and concentrations of sICAM-1 in smokers were significantly elevated (30 and 42%, respectively). After supplementation with alpha-tocopherol concentration of TBARS in plasma and in vitro oxidizability of LDL had decreased, but autoantibodies and sICAM-1 had not changed. Production of superoxide was not different between alpha-tocopherol- and placebo-treated smokers. It is concluded that in chronic smokers, long-term treatment with alpha-tocopherol does not normalize the raised levels of sICAM-1 and autoantibodies against oxLDL, both risk factors for initiation or progression of cardiovascular disease, despite a decrease in in vitro oxidizability of LDL.