Dietary fiber confers protection against influenza. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Dietary Fiber Confers Protection against Flu by Shaping Ly6cPatrolling Monocyte Hematopoiesis and CD8T Cell Metabolism.
Immunity. 2018 May 15 ;48(5):992-1005.e8. PMID: 29768180
Dietary fiber protects against chronic inflammatory diseases by dampening immune responses through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here we examined the effect of dietary fiber in viral infection, where the anti-inflammatory properties of SCFAs in principle could prevent protective immunity. Instead, we found that fermentable dietary fiber increased survival of influenza-infected mice through two complementary mechanisms. High-fiber diet (HFD)-fed mice exhibited altered bone marrow hematopoiesis, characterized by enhanced generation of Ly6cpatrolling monocytes, which led to increased numbers of alternatively activated macrophages with a limited capacity to produce the chemokine CXCL1 in the airways. Blunted CXCL1 production reduced neutrophil recruitment to the airways, thus limiting tissue immunopathology during infection. In parallel, diet-derived SCFAs boosted CD8T cell effector function by enhancing cellular metabolism. Hence, dietary fermentable fiber and SCFAs set an immune equilibrium, balancing innate and adaptive immunity so as to promote the resolution of influenza infection while preventing immune-associated pathology.