Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorata Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptorα Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation
Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jun 3 ;17(6). Epub 2016 Jun 3. PMID: 27271603
This study investigated the potential effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT), a triterpenoid compound from Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and examined the effects and mechanisms of TT on glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice. The in vitro study examined the effects of a MeOH crude extract (CruE) of A. camphorata and Antcin K (AnK; the main constituent of fruiting body of this mushroom) on membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt in C2C12 myoblasts cells. The in vitro study demonstrated that treatment with CruE, AnK and TT increased the membrane levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt at different concentrations. The animal experiments were performed for 12 weeks. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups after 8 weeks of HFD-induction and treated with daily oral gavage doses of TT (at three dose levels), fenofibrate (Feno) (at 0.25 g/kg body weight), metformin (Metf) (at 0.3 g/kg body weight) or vehicle for another 4 weeks while on an HFD diet. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased blood glucose levels. TT treatment dramatically lowered blood glucose levels by 34.2%~43.4%, which was comparable to the antidiabetic agent-Metf (36.5%). TT-treated mice reduced the HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in CruE-treated groups in vitro. Skeletal muscle membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in TT-treated mice. These groups of mice also displayed lower mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), an inhibitor of hepatic glucose production. The combination of these agents produced a net hypoglycemic effect in TT-treated mice. TT treatment enhanced the expressions of hepatic and skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in mice. TT-treated mice exhibited enhanced expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα (PPARα) and increased mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyl transferase Ia (CPT-1a). These mice also exhibited decreased expression levels of lipogenic fatty acid synthase (FAS) in liver and adipose tissue and reduced mRNA levels of hepatic adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 2 (aP2) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). These alterations resulted in a reduction in fat stores within the liver and lower triglyceride levels in blood. Our results demonstrate that TT is an excellent therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia.