Curcumin induces a nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2-driven response against oxidative and nitrative stress after praziquantel treatment in liver fluke-infected hamsters.
Int J Parasitol. 2011 Jan 21. Epub 2011 Jan 21. PMID: 21256849
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand; Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
Praziquantel has been used for the treatment of liver fluke infection, but an oxidative/nitrative stress may occur after a short-term treatment and participate in side effects. In an attempt to reduce the adverse effects, we administered curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent, to Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamsters treated with praziquantel. At 12h after treatment, curcumin decreased eosinophil infiltration and increased mononuclear cell infiltration in parallel with nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 expression at the transcriptional and protein levels. Curcumin also enhanced the expression of genes involved in the Nrf2-regulated stress pathway (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1, glutamate cysteine ligase, and activating transcription factor 3, peroxiredoxin 3, peroxiredoxin 6, manganese superoxide dismutase, and catalase), leading to increased ferric antioxidant capacity in the plasma. In contrast, curcumin decreased the level of oxidative and nitrative stress markers such as urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, plasma levels of malondialdehyde and nitrate/nitrite, and activity of plasma alanine transaminase, a liver injury marker. This correlated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and related molecules (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (il-1β and tnf-α). In conclusion, curcumin may be an effective chemopreventive agent against oxidative and nitrative stress derived from praziquantel treatment during O. viverrini infection via induction of Nrf2 and suppression of NF-κB-mediated pathways. Nrf2 may also be a novel therapeutic target for not only parasitic diseases but other types of inflammation-mediated diseases.