Curcumin may inhibit Coxsackievirus - GreenMedInfo Summary
Dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by curcumin suppresses coxsackievirus B3 replication.
J Virol. 2007 Apr;81(7):3142-50. Epub 2007 Jan 17. PMID:17229707
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural polyphenolic compound extracted from the spice turmeric, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties by modulating multiple cellular machineries. It inhibits several intracellular signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), casein kinase II (CKII), and the COP9 signalosome (CSN), in various cell types. It has also been recently demonstrated that exposure to curcumin leads to the dysregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Coxsackievirus infection is associated with various diseases, including myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. In searching for new antiviral agents against coxsackievirus, we found that treatment with curcumin significantly reduced viral RNA expression, protein synthesis, and virus titer and protected cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect and apoptosis. We further demonstrated that reduction of viral infection by curcumin was unlikely due to inhibition of CVB3 binding to its receptors or CVB3-induced activation of MAPKs. Moreover, gene silencing of CKII and Jab1, a component of CSN, by small interfering RNAs did not inhibit the replication of coxsackievirus, suggesting that the antiviral action of curcumin is independent of these pathways. Finally, we showed that curcumin treatment reduced both the 20S proteasome proteolytic activities and the cellular deubiquitinating activities, leading to increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and decreased protein levels of free ubiquitin. We have recently demonstrated that the UPS-mediated protein degradation and/or modification plays a critical role in the regulation of coxsackievirus replication. Thus, our results suggest an important antiviral effect of curcumin wherein it potently inhibits coxsackievirus replication through dysregulation of the UPS.