Consumption of apple-boysenberry beverage decreases salivary Actinomyces naeslundii and their adhesion in a multi-species biofilm model.
Benef Microbes. 2017 Apr 26 ;8(2):299-307. Epub 2017 Apr 13. PMID: 28403648
S G Parkar
We hypothesised that consumption of beverage rich in both fibre and polyphenols, rather than each bioactive alone, will modulate populations of selected salivary bacteria, and their adhesion characteristics and that some of these effects may be due to the anti-microbial activity of the beverage bioactives. We investigated the effect of 4 weeks' consumption of beverages, rich in apple fibre, boysenberry polyphenols, or both on salivary bacteria in healthy subjects. In this placebo-controlled crossover study, saliva samples were collected at the beginning and end of each treatment period, and used for qPCR quantitation of Lactobacillus spp., Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. The counts of salivary A. naeslundii decreased after the consumption of the apple-boysenberry beverage (P<0.05, Student's t-test). We also examined the effect of the subjects' saliva on bacterial adhesion using a mixed species biofilm model. The salivary pellicles prepared before and after each treatment were inoculated with laboratory strains of A. naeslundii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and S. mutans and tested for biofilm formation. The post appleboysenberry beverage salivary pellicle significantly decreased the adhesion of A. naeslundii at the end of both 3 and 24 h, in the in vitro biofilm. A 1/16 dilution of the apple-boysenberry beverage itself decreased the proliferation of test strains of A. naeslundii and S. mutans by 51 and 55%, respectively (P<0.005), indicating the antimicrobial activity of its bioactives. This study demonstrated that consumption of apple-boysenberry beverage, rather than apple or the boysenberry beverage alone or the placebo, decreased salivary A. naeslundii and their adhesion under laboratory conditions. These changes are factors that influence oral microecology and potentially oral health.