Concurrent use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and opioid analgesics with zolpidem and risk for suicide: a case-control and case-crossover study.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019 Apr 29. Epub 2019 Apr 29. PMID: 31037540
Hi Gin Sung
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the concurrent use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and opioid analgesics with zolpidem increases the risk of suicide or triggers suicide compared with the use of zolpidem alone.
METHODS: We conducted a case-control and case-crossover study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database. Cases were older than 20 years with a suicide record (International Codes of Disease 10th Revision codes: X-60-X84 and Y87.0 intentional self-harm) between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013. For case-control design, ten controls were matched to each case by age, sex, index year, region, income, and health insurance type. For case-crossover analysis, we set hazard period to 60 days and assigned five corresponding sets of control periods of equal length. Exposure was assessed during 60 days before suicide for combinations of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, opioid analgesics with zolpidem against zolpidem alone. We conducted a conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: In the case-control study, the risk of suicide was 2.80-fold higher in cases taking benzodiazepines and antidepressants with zolpidem than in those taking zolpidem alone (adjusted OR [aOR], 2.80; 95% CI, 1.38-5.70). However, in the case-crossover study, suicide risk showed no significant difference (crude OR [cOR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.52) and was underpowered.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the traditional case-control study confirmed that the concurrent use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants with zolpidem was associated with an increased risk of suicide compared with the use of zolpidem alone. However, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of risk in the within-person comparison design.