Concentrations and Profiles of Bisphenol A and Other Bisphenol Analogues in Foodstuffs from the United States and their Implications for Human Exposure.
J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Apr 24. Epub 2013 Apr 24. PMID: 23614805
As the concern over the safety of bisphenol A (BPA) continues to grow, this compound is gradually being replaced, in industrial applications, with compounds such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). Occurrence of bisphenols, including BPA and BPS, has been reported in paper products and in environmental matrices. Information on the occurrence of bisphenols, other than BPA, in foodstuffs, however, is scarce. In this study, several bisphenol analogues, including BPA, BPF, and BPS, were analyzed in foodstuffs (N = 267) collected from Albany, New York, USA, using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Foodstuffs were divided into nine categories of beverages, dairy products, fat and oils, fish and seafood, cereals, meat and meat products, fruits, vegetables, and"others."Bisphenols were found in the majority (75%) of the food samples, and the total concentrations of bisphenols (ΣBPs: sum of eight bisphenols) were in the range of below the limit of quantification to 1130 ng/g fresh weight, with an overall mean value of 4.38 ng/g. The highest overall mean concentration of ΣBPs was found in the"others"category, which included condiments. A sample of mustard (dressing) and ginger, placed in the category of vegetables, contained the highest concentrations of 1130 ng/g for bisphenol F (BPF) and 237 ng/g for bisphenol P (BPP). Concentrations of BPs in beverages (mean: 0.341 ng/g) and fruits (0.698 ng/g) were low. The predominant bisphenol analogues found in foodstuffs were BPA and BPF, which accounted for 42% and 17% of the total BP concentrations, respectively. Canned foods contained higher concentrations of individual and total bisphenols in comparison to foods sold in glass, paper, or plastic containers. On the basis of measured concentrations and daily ingestion rates of foods, the daily dietary intakes of bisphenols (calculated from the mean concentration) were estimated to be 243, 142, 117, 63.6, and 58.6 ng/kg bw/day for toddlers, infants, children, teenagers, and adults, respectively.