Migration Rate Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cells Treated by Caffeic Acid and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: An In Vitro Comparison Study.
Nutrients. 2017 Oct 19 ;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 19. PMID: 29048370
One of the deadliest cancers among women is a breast cancer. Research has shown that two natural substances occurring in propolis, caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), have significant anticancer effects. The purpose of our in vitro study was to compare cytotoxic activity and migration rate inhibition using CA and CAPE (doses of 50 and 100µm) against triple-negative, MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma line cells, drawn from Caucasian women. Viability was measured by XTT-NR-SRB assay (Tetrazolium hydroxide-Neutral Red-Sulforhodamine B) for 24 h and 48 h periods. Cell migration for wound healing assay was taken for 0 h, 8 h, 16 h, and 24 h periods. CAPE displayed more than two times higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells. IC50 values for the XTT assay were as follows: CA for 24 h and 48 h were 150.94 µM and 108.42 µM, respectively, while CAPE was 68.82 µM for 24 h and 55.79 µM for 48 h. For the NR assay: CA was 135.85 µM at 24 h and 103.23 µM at 48 h, while CAPE was 64.04 µM at 24 h and 53.25 µM at 48 h. For the SRB assay: CA at 24 h was 139.80 µM and at 48 h 103.98 µM, while CAPE was 66.86 µM at 24 h and 47.73 µM at 48 h. Both agents suspended the migration rate; however, CAPE displayed better activity. Notably, for the 100 µM CAPE dose, motility of the tested breast carcinoma cells was halted.