Restoration of the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D by silibinin in vitamin D-resistant colon cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2015 Jul 1 ;362(2):199-207. Epub 2015 Apr 3. PMID: 25846868
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer in developed countries. A large fraction of cases are linked to chronic intestinal inflammation, with concomitant increased TNF-α release and elevated Snail1/Snail2 levels. These transcription factors in turn suppress vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, resulting in loss of responsiveness to the protective anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). Experimental and epidemiologic evidence support the use of natural products to target CRC. Here we show that the flavonolignan silibinin reverses the TNF-α-induced upregulation of Snail1 and Snail2 in the 1,25D-resistant human colon carcinoma cells HT-29. These silibinin effects are accompanied by an increase in VDR levels; Snail1 overexpression reverses these silibinin effects. Silibinin also restores promoter activity from a vitamin D-response element (VDRE) reporter construct. While 1,25D had no significant effect on HT-29 and SW480-R cell proliferation and migration, co-treatment with silibinin restored 1,25D responsiveness. In addition, co-treatment with silibinin plus 1,25D decreased proliferation and migration at doses where silibinin alone had no effect. These findings demonstrate that this combination may present a novel approach to target CRC in conditions of chronic colonic inflammation.