Antiplatelet principles from a food spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum L) [corrected].
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1993 May;48(5):363-72. PMID: 8321872
In continuation of our studies on the oil of cloves--a common kitchen spice and a drug for home medicine--we have isolated and identified two antiplatelet components, eugenol and acetyl eugenol. They inhibited arachidonate-, adrenaline- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation; they were more potent in inhibiting aggregation by the first two agonists. Their inhibitory effect was reversible. These components were antiaggregatory by a combination of at least two effects: (i) inhibition of platelet thromboxane formation, and (ii) increased formation of 12-lipoxygenase products (12-HPETE). Though the presence of plasma proteins would reduce the effective concentration of these substances due to binding, the relatively lower amounts of these components which inhibited arachidonate-induced aggregation when compared to their effects on thromboxane production was intriguing. The answer might partly lie in an increased formation of 12-HPETE facilitated by albumin which acts as a 'conduit' to divert free arachadonic acid (AA) from the platelet cyclooxygenase (CO) to the lipoxygenase pathway (22). Based on their IC50 values, it was found that both eugenol and acetyl eugenol were more potent than aspirin in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by arachidonate, adrenaline and collagen. In arachidonate-induced aggregation eugenol was on a par with indomethacin. It was found that eugenol and acetyl eugenol when used in combination potentiated inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by arachidonate, adrenaline and collagen. This effect was, however, not evident from the metabolism of AA in platelets; when used in combination the two compounds produced an additive effect.