Citrus peel flavonoids improve lipid metabolism by inhibiting miR-33 and miR-122 expression in HepG2 cells.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019 Apr 24:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 24. PMID: 31017523
Citrus plants are rich in flavonoids and beneficial for lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Both citrus peel flavonoid extracts (CPFE) and a mixture of their primary flavonoid compounds, namely, nobiletin, tangeretin and hesperidin, citrus flavonoid purity mixture (CFPM), were found to have lipid-lowering effects on oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT1α) gene was markedly increased, while the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene was significantly decreased by both CPFE and CFPM in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Flavonoid compounds from citrus peel suppressed miR-122 and miR-33 expression, which were induced by oleic acid. Changes in miR-122 and miR-33 expression, which subsequently affect the expression of their target mRNAs FAS and CPT1α, are most likely the principal mechanisms leading to decreased lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Citrus flavonoids likely regulate lipid metabolism by modulating the expression levels of miR-122 andmiR-33.