Carnosic Acid Suppresses the HO-Induced Mitochondria-Related Bioenergetics Disturbances and Redox Impairment in SH-SY5Y Cells: Role for Nrf2.
Mol Neurobiol. 2018 Feb ;55(2):968-979. Epub 2017 Jan 13. PMID: 28084591
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira
The phenolic diterpene carnosic acid (CA, CHO) exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-cancer effects in mammalian cells. CA activates the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), among other signaling pathways, and restores cell viability in several in vitro and in vivo experimental models. We have previously reported that CA affords mitochondrial protection against various chemical challenges. However, it was not clear yet whether CA would prevent chemically induced impairment of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) function in mammalian cells. In the present work, we found that a pretreatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with CA at 1 μM for 12 h prevented the hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced impairment of the TCA enzymes (aconitase,α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)) and abolished the inhibition of the complexes I and V and restored the levels of ATP by a mechanism associated with Nrf2. CA also exhibited antioxidant abilities by enhancing the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the content oxidative stress markers (cellular 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, and 3-nitrotyrosine). Silencing of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated the protective effects elicited by CA in mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells.Therefore, CA prevented the HO-triggered mitochondrial impairment by an Nrf2-dependent mechanism. The specific role of Nrf2 in ameliorating the function of TCA enzymes function needs further research.