Cacao liquor proanthocyanidins inhibit lung injury induced by diesel exhaust particles. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Cacao liquor proanthocyanidins inhibit lung injury induced by diesel exhaust particles.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008 Apr-Jun;21(2):279-88. PMID: 18547470
Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which generate reactive oxygen species, may be involved in the recent increase in the prevalence of lung diseases. Cacao liquor proanthocyanidins (CPs) are naturally occurring polyphenols with antioxidative activities. We carried out a study in mice to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of CPs on lung injury induced by intratracheal administration of DEPs (500 microg/body). Dietary supplementation with 1.0 percent CPs inhibited DEP-induced lung injury, characterized by neutrophil sequestration and edema. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that CPs prevented enhanced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 caused by DEPs in the lung injury. Numerous adducts of nitrotyrosine, N-(hexanonyl) lysine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and 8-OHdG were also observed immunohistochemically in the lungs of mice treated with DEPs. However, these indicators of oxidative stress were barely visible in mice pretreated with CP supplementation. In addition, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the lung was decreased by CP supplementation in the presence of DEPs. These results suggest that CPs inhibit DEP-induced lung injury by reducing oxidative stress, in association with a reduction in the expression of adhesion molecules.