Anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica in Parkinson‑induced functional damage.
Mol Med Rep. 2018 Jun ;17(6):7959-7965. Epub 2018 Mar 28. PMID: 29620282
Azadirachta indica has previously been demonstrated to act as a multi‑functional medicinal plant for>2,000 years in India, and its neighboring countries. Currently, it is considered a natural resource with great value used in industrial product development and as a medicine for various types of diseases. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica which improved functional recovery in the 6‑hydroxydopamine induced rat Parkinson's disease (PD) model. Catalase, glutathione‑peroxidase, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, nuclear factor (NF)‑κB p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and AChE activity levels were analyzed via ELISA. Western blotting was used to analyze B cell lymphoma‑2 associated X protein (Bax), cytochrome c and p53 protein expression. Treatment with Azadirachta indica significantly decreased the PD‑induced rotational behavior in rats. PD‑induced catalase, glutathione‑peroxidase, iNOS activity and iNOS protein expression were significantly suppressed by treatment with Azadirachta indica. Inflammatory factors, acetylcholinesterase activity and cyclo‑oxygenase‑2 protein expression levels were additionally significantly suppressed by treatment with Azadirachta indica. The protein expression levels of Bax, cytochrome c and p53 were decreased and caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 activities diminished, with treatment with Azadirachta indica. Therefore, Azadirachta indica was demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective antioxidative and anti‑apoptotic effects in Parkinson's disease.