Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in chondrocytes by avocado soybean unsaponifiables and epigallocatechin gallate.
J Chem Neuroanat. 2004 Dec;28(4):253-64. PMID: 19748608
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in cytokine-activated equine chondrocytes. METHODS: Production of type II collagen and aggrecan was verified by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Chondrocytes were incubated with: (1) control media alone, (2) ASU (4mug/ml; 8.3mug/ml), (3) EGCG (4, 40, 400ng/ml), or (4) the combination of ASU and EGCG for 24h. Cells were next incubated with control medium alone or with IL-1beta (10ng/ml) and TNF-alpha (1ng/ml). COX-2 gene expression by real-time PCR analysis and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation by immunohistochemistry were performed after 1h of incubation. PGE(2) production was determined by immunoassay after 24h of incubation. RESULTS: Equine chondrocytes responded to cytokine activation by up-regulated gene expression of COX-2 and increased PGE(2) production. Activation was associated with NF-kappaB translocation. Individually, ASU and EGCG marginally inhibited COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production in activated chondrocytes. In contrast, the combination of ASU and EGCG reduced COX-2 expression close to non-activated control levels and significantly inhibited PGE(2) production. These reductions were statistically greater than those of ASU or EGCG alone. The inhibition of COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production was associated with inhibition of NF-kappaB translocation. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory activity of ASU and EGCG is potentiated when used in combination. This combination may offer an attractive supplement or alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of osteoarthritis.