Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin in a rat model of sepsis: an immunological, biochemical, and histopathological study.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2016 Jun ;38(3):228-237. PMID: 27144896
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that apigenin may inhibit some cellular process of sepsis-induced spleen injury and simultaneously improve inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of apigenin in a polymicrobial sepsis rat model of by cecal ligation and puncture.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 female Wistar albino rats were divided into 8 groups. The pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1-beta) and anti-inflammatory (tumor growth factor-beta and interleukin-10) cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CD3, CD68, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) positivity rates were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Oxidative stress parameters were measured by tissue biochemistry.
RESULTS: Sepsis caused a significant increase in TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, and TGF-beta levels whereas it reduced IL-10 level. Additionally, it led to an increase in CD3, CD68, and NF-κB positivity rates as well as oxidative stress parameters levels. However, apigenin inhibited the inflammation process, increased the IL-10 level and normalized the oxidative stress parameters.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with apigenin results in a significant reduction in the amount of inflammatory cells. The beneficial effect of apigenin on spleen injury also involved inhibition of NF-κB pathway, suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, and induction of anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Additionally, it led to a decrease in oxidative stress in spleen tissue. Taking everything into account, apigenin may be an alternative therapeutic option for prevention of sepsis-induced organ.