Antitumor effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on gallbladder cancer. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Antitumor effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on gallbladder cancer by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosisand.
Oncol Lett. 2018 Nov ;16(5):5687-5696. Epub 2018 Aug 20. PMID: 30344724
Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in apoptotic processes. In the present study, the traditional herbal medicine ginsenoside Rg3 was used to treat gallbladder cancerand. The underlying signaling mechanisms were investigated using various molecular biology techniques, including flow cytometry, western blot analysis, ELISA and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). It was indicated that Rg3 exerted pro-apoptotic activity against the gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD through the ER stress-mediated signaling pathway. This was demonstrated by increased expression of phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein and lipocalin 2. In addition, eIF2α and ATF4 knockdown attenuated the pro-apoptotic effect of Rg3 by inhibiting reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the results of RT-qPCR analysis indicated that long intergenic non-protein coding RNA-p21 was significantly upregulated following Rg3 treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Rg3 inhibited tumor growth in a GBC-SD gallbladder cancer xenograft, by upregulating the ER stress-mediated signaling pathway. Therefore, ER stress activation is suggested to mediate the antitumor effect of Rg3 in gallbladder cancer activityand.