Antifungal effects of herbal essential oils alone and in combination with ketoconazole against Trichophyton spp.
J Appl Microbiol. 2004 ;97(6):1289-96. PMID: 15546420
College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Dobongku, Seoul, South Korea. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS: To determine the effects of herbal essential oils on Trichophyton spp. growth and to evaluate the effects of Pelargonium graveolens oil and its main components citronellol and geraniol combined with ketoconazole against Trichophyton spp.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Growth inhibition of six Trichophyton spp. by herbal essential oils was accessed and the combined effects of P. graveolens oil and its main components citronellol and geraniol were evaluated using a checkerboard microtitre assay against T. schoenleinii, T. erinacei and T. soudanense. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited strong synergism with ketoconazole against T. schoenleinii and T. soudanense, with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices in the range of 0.18-0.38.
CONCLUSIONS: The antifungal effects of ketoconazole against Trichophyton spp. are enhanced significantly by administering it in combination with the essential oil fraction of P. graveolens or its main components, because of strong synergism, especially against T. soudanense and T. schoenleinii.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The combination of ketoconazole and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens or its main components for treatment of infections caused by Trichophyton species may reduce the minimum effective dose of ketoconazole, and thus minimize the side-effects of ketoconazole.