The Natural Product 6-Gingerol Inhibits Inflammation-Associated Osteoclast Differentiation via Reduction of Prostaglandin E₂ Levels.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jul 16 ;19(7). Epub 2018 Jul 16. PMID: 30013004
The natural product 6-gingerol, a major bioactive component of the rhizome of ginger (), is known to have several beneficial effects on health, including anti-inflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol on osteoclast differentiation associated with inflammation. 6-Gingerol inhibited osteoclast differentiation in co-cultures of osteoblasts and osteoclast precursor cells in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1. However, it did not affect osteoclast precursor differentiation into osteoclasts induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), a key cytokine causing osteoclast differentiation. 6-Gingerol inhibited IL-1-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts, and the addition of RANKL to the co-cultures overcame 6-gingerol-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. It also suppressed IL-1-induced prostaglandinE₂ (PGE₂) production in osteoblasts, and the addition of exogenous PGE₂ reversed 6-gingerol-mediated inhibition of IL-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts and osteoclast differentiation in the co-cultures. We found that 6-gingerol reduced PGE₂ levels by suppressing enzymatic activities ofcyclooxygenase and PGE synthase, which cooperatively catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGE₂. Our findings demonstrate that 6-gingerol inhibits IL-1-induced osteoclast differentiation via suppression of RANKL expression in osteoblasts though reduction of PGE₂ levels, suggesting itspotential use in treating inflammatory bone destruction associated with excessive PGE₂ production.